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Popes during this period did not hold supreme office in the fashion of later holders of the office, but probably led the early church as part of a collective.Anti-popes are shown in text with shaded backgrounds.It seems that Peter is the one who opposes the Pharisees in their demands for circumcision and Mosaic law in relation to the Gentiles (according to Acts), although he has been guilty himself of treating Gentiles as inferiors to Jewish Christians in the past (the Incident at Antioch).In Asia Minor, the Galatians may be on their way to becoming eastern Romans, but they have not entirely forgotten their Gaulish roots.There, he begins to minister to the early Christians within the empire who are brutally persecuted, often being subject to death games in the Coliseum and public burnings.Peter attends the Council of Jerusalem, which decides to accept Gentile (non-Jewish) converts to the new church.
The institution has endured through the defining moments of European history, including the split of the Roman empire, the bloodbath of the Crusades, and the rise of the Italian Renaissance.
Hierotheos the Thesmothete (a junior archon) is reputedly the first head of the Christians of Athens.
Instructed by the Apostle Paul, he is baptised and ordained by him about this year.
They initially receive St Paul as an angel from heaven but perhaps fail fully to understand the Christian message.
Acts (xiii-xiv) indicates that they have to be restrained at Lystra from sacrificing to St Paul, and shortly afterwards they stone 'the Angel of God', and leave him for dead.
The early sources are the basis for the Catholic Church's official list of popes for the first two centuries, although some sources contradict one another even as far as names and dates.